This book provides the theoretical and analytical background critical to understand the process of economic development and growth at the beginning of the 21st century. This book adopts an interdisciplinary approach, using concepts borrowed from related disciplines such as politics, anthropology, psychology, business, and more. The core theme of this book is the argument that different theoretical approaches constitute excellent creative contributions, the study of which is necessary for a complete understanding of development and growth. Thus, this book stands out for its theoretical pluralistic character. The first part of the book provides an introduction to essential methodology terms for the theory of economic development and growth, while the second part outlines important concepts of economic behavior. Part three focuses on the sources of economic growth and their evolution throughout history, and pays special attention to the main theories related to economic growth as well as to the growth and development implications of Covid-19. The book ends with an analysis of international financial architecture and the consolidated financial transaction framework.